Maggie stares at the clock. She has been working on the same math problem for over one-half hour and cannot solve it. She must pass this test. Although mathematics is not her strongest subject, she has studied hard for this exam and knows all the formulas. Right now she is suffering from math and test-taking anxiety because she can’t seem to solve this high-value problem. She is sitting next to her friend Rod. She likes Rod, he laughs at all her jokes and makes her feel good, and Rod is good at math. Seated behind Maggie is Stewart, a soccer player who is also good at math and likes Maggie.

Scenario #1:
When the teacher turns his back, Maggie leans left and takes a quick glance at Rod’s test. He is using a different formula on the troublesome problem. Maggie uses the other formula on the problem and is able to solve it correctly showing all of her work.

Scenario #2:
Maggie is about to lean left and look at Rod’s paper when Stewart, who sensed Maggie’s frustration and looked at her test, taps her on the shoulder. “Maggie,” he whispers almost loud enough for the professor to hear, “use the other formula!” Maggie heeds Stewart’s advice and uses a different formula. She is able to solve the problem correctly and show all of her work.

Cheating