The test is divided into two parts. The first part is a multiple-choice question; the
second part includes essay questions. Write at least one page (12 point font, double
spaced) for each essay question. You may go up to two pages.
PART 1
Multiple Choice Question (1 point)
Manichaeism was based on a syncretic blend of:
(a) Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism
(b) Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Buddhism
(c) Christianity and Buddhism
(d) Zoroastrianism, Islam and Buddhism
PART 2
Answer the following questions (33 points each):
1. Justinian, the most important early Byzantine emperor had codified Roman
law. Attached to the test are two primary sources: first is an extract from
Byzantine family law and is a marriage contract of the eighth century (A
Marriage Contract, p. 95-96). The second is an extract from the writing of
princess Ana, granddaughter of Emperor Alexius I, of the Byzantine Empire
who lived in the twelfth century. She describes the role of her grandmother,
an empress, in affairs of state (A History of Anna Comnena, p. 96-97). Based
on the two documents, discuss the role and status of women in the Byzantine
Empire. What interpretations can you draw about gender relations from
these sources.
2. Philosophical reflection was one of the key features of the ancient world.
Discuss how social chaos and political instability enabled the rise of new
philosophies in ancient China? How did the rise of Buddhism and Jainism
contribute to new ways of thinking of religion and society in ancient India.
How did these traditions in China and India inform the formation of State.
3. Greek and Roman societies created a more tightly integrated Mediterranean
basin yet differed substantially both in organization and outlook. How did the
emergence of polis informed ideas of Athenian democracy and Spartan state
in the ancient world. How did Roman Empire shape the creation of a
‘cosmopolitan Mediterranean’ characterized by trade and urbanization.

history