Instructions
How do Homer’s epic poems illustrate a world without critical thought about nature?
Why is it significant that the words soma and psyche did not yet exist?
What is the significance of using cosmos for the universe by early philosophers, such as the Ionians and Pythagoreans?
What is the goal of Ionian philosophy? Provide examples.
Describe Ionian materialism. Pythagorean idealism. Sophist relativism. Atomist determinism.
How do the ancient Greeks of the 5th and 6th centuries BCE mark the beginning of the Western way of thinking?
How do developments in Greek philosophy and Greek art reflect the emerging Greek mind? Provide specific examples.
How are the architecture and sculpture of the Parthenon a blend of the Pythagorean and Sophist influence? Provide examples.
Why was a balance of these two opposing philosophies so important in classical Athens?
How does this represent an ideal democracy?
How do the views of the later sophists deviate from the views of Pericles?
What happens to the idea of justice and truth in late classical Greece?
How is classical tradition rejected in late classical art? Provide examples.
Discuss Plato’s Cave. How is it a metaphor for idealism? How does it relate to Plato’s divided line analogy?
Why does Plato promote mathematic description for natural phenomena (science)? How does Plato view knowledge about the natural world?
How do Plato and Aristotle define form? How does this explain their different epistemologies? Provide examples.
According to Aristotle, what is the difference between mathematics and philosophy?
Discuss the difference in Plato’s and Aristotle’s theories of matter.
What is the difference between Plato’s and Aristotle’s view of justice, harmony (happiness)?
How does Plato’s idealism explain his view that the Philosopher King is the ideal ruler?
According to Plato, why is a philosophical mind so important for perfect justice and wisdom?
Why does Plato insist that rulers have no family, possess no property?
What does Aristotle mean when he refers to humans as political animals?
What is the ideal ruler(s) for Aristotle?
How does Hellenistic sculpture reflect the new cultural interest in the individual and the world of the senses?
Explain the increasing importance of rulers, poets, orators and philosophers in the Hellenistic Empire.
How does the portrayal of exotic objects, women, goddesses and athletes in the Hellenistic Era show a clear departure from Classical Greece?
Compare Aristotle’s explanation for planetary motion with Plato’s (Eudoxus) model and explain the difference between mathematical astronomy and philosophy (four causes).
Discuss Ptolemy’s model for planetary motion. What do the eccentric deferent, the epicycle, and the equant point describe? Why was the model controversial?

How do Homer’s epic poems illustrate a world without critical thought about nature?