Need to answer all of these 8 questions.
1. a. What are three reasons why the genome of a zygote does not strictly determine an individual’s mature cognitive or neurological traits? (you can consider gene transcription or translation processes, epigenetic variables, or other developmental processes.
b. What are two reasons many scientists do not consider concept “innate” to be useful or informative
2. a)What are four molecules that, in vertebrate embryos, pattern the anterior- posterior axis? Be sure to indicate what these molecules are, for each of these molecules, indicate a) where they are concentrated in the embryo; b) when they are active; and c) how they regulate the fate of cells to form different segments of the nervous system
3.McConnel and colleagues transplanted cortical pyramidal cells from donor embryos into hosts of different ages. Briefly recount the main findings of those studies. What do they tell us about cell birthday and fate specification in mammalian cortical development?
4.Radial glial cells are the ultimate enablers of nervous system development. Why? Explain (a) what they are. Also explain (b) when and © where they emerge and (d) what two key processes they contribute to, in order to form the cortex.
5. What are axonal growth cones? What are their parts and their parts and their structural components? How do they grow and move? What forces or factors determine where they end up?
6. Subtractive processes play an important role in shaping the nervous system. Describe two of these processes: synaptic pruning, and selective cell death (apoptosis). Explain how a subtractive process during the maturation of muscle fibers innervation by motor axons “sculpts” an efficient motor system.
7.What are five changes in the brain during adolescence?
8. You are talking to a friend who is trying to get pregnant. She knows you just took this course. She asks what sorts of substances and illnesses she should try to avoid during a pregnancy. What are five examples you can give her? For each, indicate very briefly a problem that could result from exposure during prenatal development.