.Quantitative genetics looks at similarities among individuals, analyzing how biologically related they are. These studies are often done on all of the following EXCEPT which?

Unrelated strangers
Siblings
Cousins
Twins raised separately following is the most

2. Which of the accurate description of the methodological advantage of twin studies?

Because there are two participants the findings always replicate.
Because twins share DNA it is possible to estimate the contribution of genetics to their personality and behavior.
Because twins share genetics and live in the same environment, they provide information about both nature and nurture.
Twin studies use both self-report and peer report.

3. Consciousness is best defined as:

First person experiences of an event including memories and emotions
A state of high alertness or vigilance
The point at which our circadian rhythm shifts to the waking state
The stimuli within a person’s field of vision

4. Researcher Richard Davidson and his colleagues are well-known for conducting brain scans of Buddhist monks. They hope to gain insights on various aspects of consciousness from people who spend many hours in meditation. These studies are:

Invalid because they mix science and religion
Likely invalid because Buddhist monks have no more insight than do other people
Part of “contemplative science”
Part of “Buddhist science”

5. Collin and Taylor are both first-year college students, and they live in the same dormitory. They see each other several times a day and have begun having romantic feelings toward each other. The factor of physical nearness that predicts their attraction to each other is called ________.

Proximity
Similarity
Temporality
Reciprocity

 

6. Which of the following is the best definition of dualism?

There is a clear distinction between conscious and unconscious thought.
There is a clear distinction between thoughts and feelings.
Thoughts and feelings are a single phenomenon.
There is a clear distinction between the physical world and mental experience.

7. Which of the following is the best definition of dualism?

There is a clear distinction between conscious and unconscious thought.
There is a clear distinction between thoughts and feelings.
Thoughts and feelings are a single phenomenon.
There is a clear distinction between the physical world and mental experience.

8. In Fisher’s Personality of Love framework, ___________________

Serotonin and Dopamine types are the most common in mammals
Estrogen and serotonin types are immensely loyal.
Testosterone and Oxytocin types are extroverted and hard to commit.
Estrogen and Oxytocin types are strong negotiators.

9. Vasopressin may differ in some of its roles from oxytocin, as vasopressin is associated with________________

A father’s impulse to have many offspring.
A mother’s impulse to fiercely protect her offspring.
A father’s impulse to fiercely protect his offspring.
Both protection and reproduction in evolution theory.

10. Which of the following is a process in which the DNA itself is modified by environmental events and those genetic changes are then transmitted to children?

Eugenics
Transcriptional sequences
Polymorphisms
Epigenetics

11. Which if the following is an example of contemplative science?

How contemplative practices such as meditation influence epigenetic changes
How contemplative practices such as meditation influence physiology, behavior, and cognition.
How contemplative practices such as meditation influence social relationships and neuroendocrine markers
How contemplative practices such as meditation influence psychological traits.

12. If a person was in an accident in which she suffered mild brain damage to her visual cortex but still received visual signals through V5 activation she might suffer from “cortical blindness.” Her symptoms could include:

Not being able to see but having the feeling of sight
Being able to see but not having any conscious awareness of sight
Having a blending of senses in which she “hears sights”
Not being able to hear

13. A heritability coefficient is:

A measure of the strength of the relationship between individual differences in a given trait and individual genetic differences
A test doctors use to determine if siblings are twins
A test to determine an individual’s genetic code
A measure of attitudes about the reliability of genetic testing

14. Which of the following is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors?

A person’s personality
A person’s height
A person’s political opinions
All of the above

15. According to the __________ theory of consciousness, people fare better in environments and situations where they can accurately anticipate what other individuals are going to do.

Social neuroscience
Perceptual priming
Global neuronal workspace
Externalized attentiveness

16. What is the most accurate statement regarding understanding another’s consciousness?

Two people who experience the same event will have the same consciousness of that event.
If you describe what you are experiencing to another person, they can have the same consciousness of that experience as you.
The only time when consciousness can be truly shared is during group meditation or dual hypnosis.
You cannot know consciousness from another person’s point of view.

 

17. In the famous Star Wars movie, Obi-Wan tells Luke that everything he knows depends on a certain point of view. At the center of each person’s own vantage point of the world is their ________. It contains everything that person knows.

Third-person perspective.
Humanistic view
Consciousness
Existential self

18. Which of the following sentences best describes current thinking on the nature-nurture debate?

The debate is over: most psychological traits are largely the product of genetic influence.
The debate is over: most psychological traits are largely the product of environmental influence.
Most psychological traits have a genetic component, but nature also has the ability to change even supposedly “fixed” traits such as height.
Studies of identical twins who were raised in separate households prove that environment, and not genetics, is responsible for most psychological traits.

19. Which question has caused more controversy than any other in the history of psychology?

the free will question
the mind-body question
he dualism- monism debate
the nature-nurture debate

20. Which of the following statements illustrates a first-person perspective?

children think the world revolves around them
when my partner is happy, all is right with the world
let me tell you what I think
do animals have souls?

Short answer

21. Describe the evidence that early attraction and love are associated with very specific brain areas. Where does this happen and why might these processes look like “addiction” in the brain?

22. Why are adoption studies some of the best ways to investigate the nature-nurture question? Give a specific example of a case study and provide support for either type of influence.

23. Describe the ‘costs and benefits’ of consciousness. Give a specific example of each.

24. What is the role of serotonin in love and attraction throughout the lifetime? How does its levels vary and influence relationships?

25. What is the vagus nerve’s role in relationships?

26. The absence of social behavior, such as social distancing, may have effects on oxytocin and vasopressin. Describe the potential effects.

27. What are the common biological and neuroendocrine elements that appear in maternal love and adult-adult relationships?

28. Can you think of a human characteristic for which genetic differences would play almost no role? Defend your choice.

29. Do you think the time will come when we will be able to predict almost everything about someone by examining their DNA on the day they are born?

30. Describe the complex relationship between memory and consciousness. Give a specific example.

Neuroscience