Instructions
Threats from Biological, Chemical, Nuclear, and Radiological Weapons

Write an essay of the historical and current threats posed by biological, chemical, nuclear, and radiological weapons. Then describe intentional, accidental and natural exposures to all of these agents, and the public health consequences associated with such events. Briefly explain the public health community’s role in responding to weapons of mass destruction [biological, chemical, nuclear, and radiological weapons].

Essay must be 400–650 words (not including references). Essay should be written in standard, edited English and follow APA guidelines for reference citations. Essay must be supported with specific citations from scholarly (peer-reviewed) sources and from resources provided within. A minimum of 3 references are required. Essay must be organized with headings. Headings can be sections of the initial prompt paraphrased or the actual prompt itself.

Utilize the following resources, videos and attached items to inform both parts of this assignment:

Katz, R. (2019). Essentials of Public Health Preparedness and Emergency Management (2nd Edition). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
Chapter 2, “Threats from Biological, Chemical, Nuclear, and Radiological Weapons”

Why Pandemics Like COVID-19 Keep Happening
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VFf4oPfaKNc&;feature=emb_logo

Engineered Viruses Are the New Biological Weapons, Here’s What You Need to Know
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBBIfGaml0c&;feature=emb_logo

Chemical Attacks – What You Should Know
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmYNqerlQgA&;feature=emb_logo

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
• Bozue, J., Cote, C. K., & Glass, P. J. (Eds.). (2018). Medical aspects of biological warfare. Office of the Surgeon General, Borden Institute, US Army Medical Department Center and School, Health Readiness Center of Excellence, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

• Croddy, E. A., Larsen, J. A., & Wirtz, J. J. (Eds.). (2018). Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Essential Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO.

• Dennis, D. T., Inglesby, T. V., Henderson, D. A., Bartlett, J. G., Ascher, M. S., Eitzen, E., … & Lillibridge, S. R. (2001). Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Jama, 285(21), 2763-2773.

• Fountain A.W. (2019) Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive Threats: An Introduction. In: Masys A. (eds), Handbook of Security Science, 1-6. Springer, Cham.

• Khan, A. S., Morse, S., & Lillibridge, S. (2000). Public-health preparedness for biological terrorism in the USA. The Lancet, 356(9236), 1179-1182.

• Meulenbelt, S. (2018). Assessing chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats to the food supply chain. Global Security: Health, Science and Policy, 3(1), 14-27.

• Noji, E. K. (2003). Medical Preparedness and Response to Terrorism with Biological and Chemical Agents–Present Status in USA. International Journal of Disaster Medicine, 1(1), 51-55.

• Noji, E. K. (2003). Medical Preparedness and Response to Terrorism Secondary to Weapons of Mass Destruction in the USA. International Journal of Disaster Medicine, 1, 1-7.

• Lioy, P. J., Laskin, J. D., & Georgopoulos, P. G. (2016). Preparedness and response to chemical and biological threats: the role of exposure science. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1378(1), 108-117.

• Li, H. L., Tang, W. J., Ma, Y. K., Jia, J. M., Dang, R. L., & Qiu, E. C. (2015). Emergency response to nuclear, biological and chemical incidents: challenges and countermeasures. Military Medical Research, 2(1), 19.

• Kotora, J. G. (2015). An assessment of Chemical, Biological, Radiologic, Nuclear, and Explosive preparedness among emergency department healthcare providers in an inner-city emergency department. Journal of Emergency Management, 13(5), 431-446.

• Tuorinsky, S. D. (Ed.). (2008). Medical aspects of chemical warfare. Office of the Surgeon General, Borden Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC.

Threats from Biological, Chemical, Nuclear, and Radiological Weapons